1) What is kapas?
Kapas is raw cotton or seed cotton
2) What is lint?
Cotton fibre separated from seed cotton is called lint.
3) What is FP bales?
FP bales are full pressed bales with standard weight of 170 kgs.
4) What is meant by ginning?
Ginning is process, which separates cotton fibres from cottonseed.
5) What is pressing?
Lint cotton separated from cottonseed is pressed in the form of full pressed bales with standard weight of 170 kgs.
6) What is meant by out-turn?
Out-turn is percentage of lint obtained out of one quintal of kapas (seed cotton), after processing.
7) What is meant by APMC?
APMC means Agricultural Produce Market Committees constituted under APMC Act of various State Governments.
8) What is cowdy?
Cowdy is immature/damaged/infected bolls of kapas, which is separated at the time of cleaning of seed cotton either through kapas cleaner or by way of hand grading.
9) What is candy?
One candy is 3.56 quintals of lint cotton. It is unit for sale of cotton in India in most of the States.
10) Which are the cotton growing States in India?
In India, cotton is grown in 9 major cotton growing States viz. Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan in Northern zone, Gujarat, Maharashtra and MP in Central zone and Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in Southern zone. Besides, cotton is also grown in Orissa.
11) Which State grows the more cotton?
Gujarat is the leading cotton growing State followed by Maharashtra.
12) Which State has the largest area under cotton?
Maharashtra has the largest area under cotton cultivation followed by Gujarat.
13) What is the average productivity of cotton in the country vis-à-vis world average?
The average productivity of cotton in the country is 526 kgs per hectare vis-à-vis world average of 764 kgs per hectare during 2008-09.
14) What are the reasons for low productivity in India?
In India nearly 60 per cent area under cotton cultivation is rainfed.
15) Which State has higher productivity?
Cotton productivity has been highest in Karnataka at 670 kgs, in Gujarat at 633 kgs per hectare in 2008-09.
16) When the cotton is planted in India?
In irrigated areas of Northern zone cotton plantings is from mid-April till last week of May. In Central zone and Southern zones planting is taken up in June-July depending on onset of monsoon and continue till August. In Tamil Nadu (Southern zone) planting for summer crop is taken up in Jan/Feb and for winter in June-July.
17) When Indian cotton harvested?
Harvesting period is mainly from October to February. However, zone-wise harvesting period is as per details given below:
Northern zone: September-December,
Central zone: October to February,
Southern zone: October to February
Summer crop in Tamil Nadu & Karnataka : May to July
18) What type of cotton is grown in India?
India has the advantage of growing all species of cotton i.e. from short staple 20mm & below, medium staple (20.5 to 24.5mm), medium long (25.0 to 27.0mm), long (27.5 to 32.0mm) and extra long staple cottons (32.5mm and above).
19) How many varieties are grown in India?
India produce large number of varieties and hybrids, number of varieties in cultivation exceeds seventy-five. However, 98 per cent of the production is contributed by about 25 varieties.
20) What is Bt cotton?
Bt cotton is one such insect resistant cotton with gene derived from a soil bacterium known Bacillus thuringiensis through genetic engineering. Bt confers high level of tolerance to the American bollworm Heliothis Armigera infestations.
21) Who is releasing Bt varieties for cultivation?
Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) under the Ministry of Environment & Forest, Government of India is releasing the Bt varieties for commercial cultivation.
22) Who is estimating cotton production in the country?
Cotton Advisory Board, the apex body under the Chairmanship of Textile Commissioner is estimating cotton production every year in the country.
23) What is meant by MSP?
MSP means Minimum Support Price.
24) Who fixes the MSP?
Government of India on recommendation from Commission on Agricultural Costs Prices is fixing the MSP every year. Till 2007-08, the MSPs had been fixed for basic two varieties i.e. F414/H-777/J-34 and H-4/H-10. From cotton season 2008-09, Government of India has been fixing MSPs based on two basic staple groups viz., medium staple group with staple length 24.5 to 25.5mm and Long staple with staple length 29.5 to 30.5mm.
25) How much cotton do Indian textile mills use?
Nearly 85 to 90 per cent cotton of total availability is used by Indian textile mills. During 2008-09, the domestic cotton consumption has been estimated at 230 lakh bales.
26) How much cotton is exported from India?
During 2007-08, India exported a record quantity of about 85 lakh bales. During current cotton season, CAB has estimated export of 50 lakh bales from the country.
27 ) How much cotton is imported into the country?
Over the years imports of cotton into the country are only against short supply of Extra Long staple cottons. During 2008-09, cotton imports into the country are estimated at 7 lakh bales.
28 ) Where CCI makes purchases of kapas?
CCI makes purchases in all major cotton growing States through a network of about 315 procurement centres.
29) How CCI procures cotton?
CCI procure cotton in the regulated APMCs in all the cotton growing States in the presence of APMC officials.
30) What is Contract Farming?
Contract Farming is Integrated Cotton Cultivation, which brings all stakeholders of cotton on one platform.
31) What is the benefit of Contract Farming?
Contract Farming helps cotton growers in increasing their yields through reduction in cost of cultivation and at the same time assuring supply of quality cotton to the textile mills.
32) What is FLD?
FLD means Front Line Demonstrations which ensure transfer of improved production and protection technology from research to farm level under Mini Mission II of the TMC.
33) What is TMC?
TMC means Technology Mission on Cotton launched by Government of India in February 2000 to improve production, productivity and quality of cotton.
34) What is Mini Mission?
Mini Missions are the components of TMC. The details of various Mini Missions are available on website.
35) What is TUF Scheme?
TUF is Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme effective from 1-4-1999.
36) What is ICAC?
International Cotton Advisory Committee is the intergovernmental forum for matters related to cotton.
37) What is international price mechanism?
International price mechanism available in the world today is the Duel Index system published by Cotlook on daily basis applies for reflecting nearby and distant offering rates, which are devised on average price for long staple type of cotton and for short staple type of cotton in the form of Index A and Index B.
38) What is Cotlook A Index?
Cotlook A Index is the average of the cheapest five of the eligible growths listed in the category. The quality description of the Cotlook A index is Middling 1-3/32″. The Cotlook Index is quoted in US Cents per lb and represents C/F Far Eastern values.