India’s association with cotton goes back a long way. Cotton was first cultivated nearly 7,000 years ago, by the inhabitants of Indus Valley Civilization – part of Northwestern India today. The magic of this textile fiber then spread from India to the Mediterranean and beyond.
Over the last few decades India has made rapid strides in the production, ginning and export of cotton. Since the commencement of the “Technology Mission on Cotton” by the Government of India in February 2000, significant achievements have been made in several spheres of the cotton industry. An increase in yield and production, through the adoption of high-yield BT Cotton hybrids, were some of the factors that contributed to an increase in yield per hectare. From 300 kg/ha, the number increased substantially and reached a level of 554 kg/ha in 2007-08.
Indian Cotton is a major contributor for the Indian economy and the global cotton trade. As per the data compiled in 2012, India is the 2nd largest producer, exporter and consumer of cotton in the world, producing 21.83% of the world’s cotton. In addition, India is also the largest producer of organic cotton. Cotton textiles account for almost 29% of total T&C export from India.
Over the last decade the Indian Cotton Industry has seen several positive changes, beginning with the area of production for cotton cultivation. The area that was once recorded at 76 million hectares, has at present has increased to 120 million hectares (Indian Cotton Annual, 2007-08, No. 88).
There has further been a marked improvement in the length, strength, contamination levels and overall quality of Indian Cotton, with the crop size increasing by upto a 100% over the last decade.
Government schemes, initiated to assist ginners, have resulted in a significant improvement in the availability of ginning facilities in the country and encouraged new ginners to be a part of this flourishing industry. The last seven-eight years have seen reduced crop contamination levels and today, a majority of trade centers in South East Asia thrive on Indian Cotton. These are just some of key factors that have played a considerable role in the increased value and acceptability of Indian Cotton on a global scale.
|No.||TYPE/VARIETY||STAPLE LENGTH 2.5% SPAN LENGH IN MM||FINENESS MICRONAIRE VALUE||STRENGTH
|ICC MODE||US MODE|
|1||BENGALDESHI||14.0-18.0||6.0-7.0||13-15||18-20||Midd (shy) to Midd|
|2||WAGAD||18.0-20.0||5.5-6.0||15-18||23-24||SLM to Midd . (Shy)|
|3||V-79722. -26.0||4.5-5.5||15-18||24-25||LM TO SLM|
|6||NHH-44/LRA-5166||25.0-27.0||3.4-4.0||16-18||25-26||SLM & Better|
|7||J-34||25.0-27.5||4.5-5.2||16-18||26.28||SLM to Midd (Shy)|
|9||SHANKAR – 6||27.0-29.5||3.7-4.9||21-23||26-29||Midd. to SM|